Billion-Dollar Wealth Creation Secrets from the Marketing Geniuses of the 19th and 20th Centuries — Part 1
P. T. Barnum, America’s Master Promoter
The great American marketing masters definitely include P. T. Barnum and Claude C. Hopkins.
There are several websites that provide access to advertisements from the 19th century and early 20th century. Though the typeface and graphics look outdated, the psychological principles behind their success are not. In the endnotes, you can find a list of some of the best sources. Generally, their content is available for research and personal use, but not for reproduction. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Other websites provide overviews of early American marketing. I list a few of those in the endnotes as well. I also recommend a few books. While this content is interesting as history, a study of the successful ads and marketing campaigns of the past reveals much about the American consumer. (9) (10) (11) (12)
Top Internet marketer Marlon Sanders offers a downloadable PDF with his expert insights. Called “Little-known Old School Marketing Secrets — Revealed,” it is highly recommended. (13)
Note: With these older materials, the question of public domain arises. While I don’t want to offer legal advice, with help from copywriting guru Carl Galletti, I can provide you with an online guide to American copyright expiration. The information is very helpful, though obviously in the case of more recent publications, the situation remains legally ambiguous and requires more research. (14) (15)
I suspect you may be wondering if these “old school” guys are worth your time. Let’s turn to no less than Ken McCarthy, a pioneer in Internet marketing and mentor to many other top Internet marketers.
His success on the Internet speaks for itself. Here is what Ken McCarthy says about studying the “classics of the pre-Internet age.”
Whenever anyone asks me about how to succeed in Internet Marketing, I always direct them to the mail order and advertising classics of the pre-Internet age. The information in these books is a literal gold mine for anyone smart enough to take advantage of them. (18)
The first great American marketing master we will look at is P. T. Barnum.
P. T. Barnum — the Misunderstood American Marketing Master
It’s easy to get sidetracked by the controversial nature of Phineas T. Barnum’s promotions. After all, nowadays, he’s best known for two things: a world-famous circus and the quote, “There’s a sucker born every minute.”
The facts contradict these misconceptions. Barnum did not get involved with the “Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth” circus until he was 61 years old. Nor did that famously cynical quote come from him. It came from a jealous competitor who was seeking to discredit Barnum. (21) (22)
One of Barnum’s promotions was called the Cardiff Giant. His competitor, a banker out of Syracuse, New York named David Hannum, claimed that his version of the giant was authentic, while that of Barnum’s was a hoax.
In fact, they were both hoaxes. Hannum’s “giant in the earth” was a 12-foot piece of blue gypsum that had been carved in the shape of a human figure writhing in the throes of a painful death. It was Hannum, referring to the people paying good money to see Barnum’s “fake” giant, who in 1869 said the famous words, “There’s a sucker born every minute.” (23)
The Cardiff Giant was the most talked-about exhibit in the nation. Barnum wanted the giant to display himself while the attraction was still a hot topic of the day. Rather than upping his offer [of $50,000], Barnum hired a crew of workers to carve a giant of his own. Within a short time, Barnum unveiled HIS giant and proclaimed that Hannum had sold Barnum the original giant and that Hannum was now displaying a fake!
Thousands of people flocked to see Barnum’s giant. Many newspapers carried the version that Barnum had given them; that is, Hannum’s giant was a fake and Barnum’s was authentic. It is at this point that Hannum — NOT BARNUM — was quoted as saying, “There’s a sucker born every minute.” Hannum, still under the impression that HIS giant was authentic, was referring to the thousands of “fools” that paid money to see Barnum’s fake and not his authentic one.
Hannum brought a lawsuit against Barnum for calling his giant a fake. When it came to trial, [George] Hull [the original creator of the fake] stepped forward and confessed that the Cardiff Giant was a hoax and the entire story. The judge ruled that Barnum could not be sued for calling Hannum’s giant a fake since it was a fake after all. Thereafter, Hannum’s name was lost to history while Barnum was left with the misplaced stigma of being the one to say, “There’s a sucker born every minute.” (24)
Without “Attention!” There Is No Interest, No Desire… and No Sale
If you study copywriting then you are probably familiar with the A.I.D.A. sales formula: Attention + Interest + Desire = Action. It’s a great sounding formula that seems to tie everything we think of as marketing into a neat little package, yet it reveals much less than is commonly thought.
For example, how exactly are we supposed to get the prospect’s attention?
Once we get his attention, precisely how do we sustain his interest, stimulate his desire and push, pull, influence, seduce, cajole, persuade, or otherwise move him into taking the action that we would like him to take?
Maybe we want him to opt in with his email address, call us on the telephone, schedule an appointment, or make a purchase. Great. But how do we do this? How do we get through our prospect’s casual indifference, sensory overload, hyper-distractedness, and habitual mental fogginess?
The bottom line of making money is knowing how to grab people’s attention.
Without that, we have nothing. Unless we can grab their attention (A), we will never get to I, D, A, or S (the Sale where we make money).
Just so when we gain some skill at capturing people’s attention, when we get good at even just the “A” in A.I.D.A., then we’ve got what we need in order to capture emails, accumulate a niche email list, build an online business asset, and make good money on a regular basis with relative ease via email offers that we send to our targeted opt-in list.
Master “A,” and we’re on our way. Mr. Barnum knows “A” like nobody else!
The Human Brain and the “P. T. Barnum Master Class in Curiosity”
Hands down, the real and truly astonishing contribution of P. T. Barnum to American marketing is the art of capturing customer attention via the power of carefully crafted, nearly irresistible, curiosity-generating creative devices. For reasons that are not fully understood, curiosity for us human beings can reach an urgent fever hot pitch that forces us to peek at what comes next.
The standard answer is that the way to garner the prospect’s attention is to appeal to his/her self-interest. That is a half-truth at best. Over and over we have been told, “The customer is listening to W.I.I.F.M. (What’s In It For Me).” But Barnum’s consistent success demonstrates that flipping the prospect’s “I gotta look at this!” switch takes more than mere self-interest.
Scott Haines was one of the last copywriters trained by the late Prince of Print, Gary Halbert. According to Haines, Gary Halbert agreed with Barnum.
In an interview, Haines talked about the top three marketing lessons that he learned from Halbert.
QUESTION: What was it like working directly with Gary Halbert, and what were the top 3 “gems” you learned from him?
SCOTT HAINES: Working with Gary was the very best thing that ever happened to me. As far as what it was like… there’s just not enough space here to do it justice. I could easily write a whole book on our strange and crazy adventures together. And someday, I might.
I will, however, give you three gems I learned from him…
1. One time, on his houseboat in Bayside Marina in Downtown Miami, he asked me this question…
“Do you know the #1 reason why most people buy something from an advertisement?”
I thought about it and replied, “Sure, self-interest.” Then he told me something I’ll never forget, he said…
“That’s not it… the #1 reason most people buy something is because of curiosity.”
He then went on to say,
“Sure, self-interest is very important, but curiosity trumps it.”
I can’t give you a whole lesson here on how to put curiosity to use in your copy, but I can tell you, at the very least, curiosity needs to be a strong element in your headlines and bullets. (26)
I don’t know about you, but I’m more than a little bit curious as to what the other two “gems” were that Haines got from Halbert. I don’t want to torture you, so here they are.
The second key Halbert insight:
“Nothing is impossible for a man who refuses to listen to reason.” (27)
The third key Halbert insight:
“More answers will be found through movement [taking action] than will ever be found through meditation.” (28)
I don’t have room to explain these here. In fact, I’m not sure I could even if I had unlimited space. The late Gary Halbert was a genius, and only he could speak for himself — via his luxuriant legacy of words.
P. T. Barnum was a genius too, and like many geniuses, he was misunderstood and underappreciated. As with other business geniuses, he left a vast heritage of knowledge that continues to give rich dividends to those who study him, even a century and a half later.
Curiosity by itself, though, isn’t quite enough.
We need at least one more ingredient. He will want to know what his benefit will be, the promise of a big benefit that fans the flames of warm curiosity into a burning conflagration of need-to-know obsession.
Curiosity is underrated because the reaction is familiar and automatic. We hear a sound, we see a movement, and our brain automatically orients to it.
The need to know is linked to our very survival. Curiosity, in short, not only helps keep us humans alive, it has enabled our species to evolve. It is the factor that shows us how to profit from opportunities and how to avoid losses.
Of major importance in the millions of years of hominid adaptation was the concept of ‘salience,’ which is related to curiosity, novelty, and reward seeking. Salience is noticing what is important or different; what contrasts from the usual. All of the various precursor hominid species to modern man evolved under conditions of privation and scarcity, at least until 20–30,000 years ago, (which is too short of time to meaningfully impact millions of years of neural sculpture). (29)
In short, our brains reward us for being curious and seeking novelty. Our fascination with the new and different is built into us as much as the need for food and the drive for sex.
Salience recognition is part of the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway. This system of neurons is integral to survival efficiency, helping us to instantly decide what in the environment should command our attention. Historically, immediate feedback on what is ‘new’ was critical in avoiding danger as well as procuring food. Because most of what happens around us each day is predictable, processing every detail of a familiar habitat wastes brain energy. It also would slow down our mental computer so as to become a deadly distraction. (30)
Our brains orient us to movement. If something is moving, then it could be very important. It could be a threat. Or it could be food.
Thus, our ancestors living on the African savanna paid little attention to the stable mountains on the horizon but were alert to any change or movement in the bush, on the plains, or at the riverbank. Those more able to detect and quickly process ‘novel cues’ were more likely to survive and pass on their genes. Indeed, modern experimental removal of dopamine receptor genes in animals causes them to reduce the exploratory behavior, a key variable related to inclusive fitness in animal biology. (31)
Our brains are also designed with a perceptual bias to stimuli that are “large, bright, high-contrast, loud, rhythmic, or novel.” The overnight success of Barnum’s 13-foot elephant attraction Jumbo, purchased from the London Zoo in 1882 for $10,000 USD, makes sudden sense. Our brains have been designed by evolution to respond quickly to precisely such an animal. (32)
Other great minds that lived just before and during Barnum’s time also recognized the archetypal power of the two-pronged propulsion: curiosity combined with a truly valuable benefit.
These historical sages included Adam Smith and Charles Darwin.
We are instinctually geared for individual survival — being both reward-driven and curious. It was these two core traits that the father of economics himself, Adam Smith, predicted would be the drivers of world economic growth in “Wealth of Nations.” According to Smith, uniting the twin economic engines of self-interest (which he termed “self-love”) and curiosity was ambition — “the competitive human drive for social betterment.” Charles Darwin, about 70 years later after reading Adam Smith’s “Theory of Moral Sentiments,” recognized the parallel between the pursuit of wealth creation and the competition for resources that occurred among species…. (35)
Here’s a useful exercise: The next time you feel the compulsive need to open an Internet marketing email about yet another golden online opportunity, take a moment to reflect on what is happening.
The offer may or may not be valuable, but I can say this: the double drivers of curiosity and anticipated benefit are at work. Check it out.
The Fine Art of Creating Colossal Cash Out of Next to Nothing
Hopefully, the idea of being able to make money out of thin air from nothing, more or less, inflames your curiosity. That’s good because I’m going to show you exactly how it is done.
So, here is the question: can a person really make cold hard cash from nothing at all or is that just another Internet pipe dream?
It is said that the truly rich, at least in the financial sense, know how to make money out of nothing. P. T. Barnum was such a money master.
Barnum attained fame as a showman with a traveling “freak show.” Among the freaks he displayed were “the Fiji Mermaid, Siamese twins Chang and Eng Bunker, General Tom Thumb the Midget.” (36)
Few of us plan to make our living that way, so that can lead us to disconnect from Barnum’s deeper marketing message. Wildly successful reality television and lowbrow radio and TV talk shows are today’s version.
The woman who dresses up as a man and successfully seduces another woman — as a man — is not a genetic “freak.” But she (or he, if the trickster role is played by a man who pretends to be a woman) is enough of a “freak,” is different, odd, or weird enough to keep millions glued to their television sets weekly, if not daily.
The resounding success of the triumphantly trashy “The Jerry Springer Show” is based on P. T. Barnum’s “freak all the way to the bank” principle. In early 2005, the show averaged “3.5 million viewers per telecast.” Springer’s star continues to rise, posting “double-digit increases for the May 2010 sweep (April 29-May 26, 2010) vs. May 2009… [one of] the largest gains of all daytime syndicated talkers.” (37) (38)
Launched in 1991, the program earned Jerry Springer a hefty $6 million per year. Appropriately, Springer’s autobiography is called “Ringmaster.” (39)
The Jerry Springer Show is ostensibly a talk show where troubled or dysfunctional families come to discuss their problems before a studio audience so that the audience or host can offer suggestions on what can be done to resolve their situations. In actuality, the show has come to epitomize the so-called “trash TV talk show,” as each episode of the show focuses on topics such as adultery, zoophilia, divorce, homophobia, homosexuality, incest, infidelity, pedophilia, pornography, prostitution, racism, strange fetishes, dwarfism, or transvestism, which frequently result in fighting between guests. At one point, the show proudly boasted that it was voted the “Worst TV Show Ever” by TV Guide magazine. The show also bragged to be “an hour of your life you’ll never get back.” The Jerry Springer Show has received widespread criticism and caused many controversies for a variety of reasons, including its elements of prurience, foul language, and the exploitation of the vulnerable. (40)
Springer’s show is a modern equivalent of Barnum’s “freak shows.” While you may not be a fan of Jerry’s show and may have never even seen the “daytime syndicated talker,” Springer’s impressive success is a colorful lesson in how to apply P. T. Barnum’s “money from nothing curiosity cash cow” secret.
Choose a topic that generates controversy, fascination, revulsion, obsession, or at the very least, extreme curiosity. We as marketers will already be halfway to our goals as we ride a spontaneous wave of consumer attention.
There will be visitors. There will be repeat customers. Money will be made. In a very real sense, it will be money that was made out of thin air, for the money came as the result of a fresh original curiosity-stoking concept.
Ideas appear to come out of “thin air.” But not all ideas are created equal. The great idea is a seed that grows. The money is literally inside the great idea! Barnum was a master at finding or creating great cash cow ideas.
The attraction factor that brings millions of people with money in their hands to the idea is actually built into the idea, into the original concept itself. The reality is that ideas like these are genuine money magnets. It would be a challenge to not make money from them, as the people will come running!
Operating with the technologies of his time, Barnum created “freak show” hoaxes that were more like commercial art concepts than mere deceptions. He enticed the customer in with his hoax, and then he delivered entertainment value in spades. His customers felt satisfied, not cheated. They walked away with unforgettable experiences that they would cherish for a lifetime.
Barnum traveled the world in search of exotic acts for his museum. At one point, he had collected more than half a million exhibits to put on display in his six-story show in New York City. Despite the high costs of finding content and running the establishment, customers were only charged for one 25-cent ticket, which would allow them to stay at the attraction for however long they wanted. He was determined to make the experience as enjoyable for his customers as possible and to deliver on what he promised.
Barnum worked hard to find acts that the public would not only enjoy but also feel good about spending their money on to come to see. Barnum might have used outlandish stunts and provocative advertising to lure customers to his shows, but once he had them there, he did not fail to disappoint. He single-handedly transformed what was once the sleazy and disreputable world of circuses into a respectable and honest one. In the end, people felt good about attending and spending money on his shows. And Barnum understood that people who felt good at his shows would be both more likely to return to do business with him and to also tell their friends. (41)
Barnum knew that running a successful business included more than just getting them in the door. He had to provide exceptional value and deliver on his hype. Nonetheless, it all started with a “big idea” that in its execution fused curiosity, benefit, boldness, and sensationalism (or controversy).
For example, consider this headline by the late great Gary Halbert that was a proven winner. Notice how curiosity, benefit, boldness, and sensationalism are incorporated into the dramatic, emotion-triggering words. Note also that the “secret” is not revealed, combining the power of the promise of a secret with a lack of information — a super-teaser if ever there was one! (42)
“The Amazing Diet Secret Of A Desperate Housewife Who Was Scared Of Losing Her Husband!”
I may not aspire to be a copywriter at Halbert’s level, but I can do him the honor of respectfully “swiping” his headline. Here’s how I do it. I just fill in the blanks with my target customer, product, and/or market:
“The Amazing _____ Secret of a Desperate _____ Who Was Scared of Losing His/Her ______!”
Got it? It’s easy. Thanks, Gary, and thank you, Phineas T. Barnum!
P. T. Barnum: Beyond the Basics
Leading small business motivation and strategy expert Evan Carmichael is an expert on P. T. Barnum’s success methods. As a convenience for students of Barnum, he collected some of his more memorable quotes. It’s amazing how relevant his words, now well over 100 years old and in the public domain, sound to us Internet marketers today. (43)
GEMS OF BUSINESS WISDOM FROM THE GREAT PHINEAS T. BARNUM
Without promotion, something terrible happens — nothing!
Newspaper reporters came from far and near, and wrote glowing accounts of the elephantine performances. The six acres were plowed over at least sixty times before I thought the advertisement sufficiently circulated.
Many persons are always kept poor because they are too visionary. Every project looks to them like certain successes, and therefore, they keep changing from one business to another, always in hot water, always ‘under the harrow.’
Do not scatter your powers.
Engage in one kind of business only and stick to it faithfully until you succeed or until your experience shows that you should abandon it.
A constant hammering on one nail will generally drive it home at last so that it can be clinched. When a man’s undivided attention is centered on one object, his mind will constantly be suggesting improvements of value, which would escape him if his brain was occupied by a dozen different subjects at once.
Many a fortune has slipped through a man’s fingers because he was engaged in too many occupations at a time.
There is good sense in the old caution against having too many irons in the fire at once.
Work at it, if necessary, early and late, in season and out of season, not leaving a stone unturned, and never deferring for a single hour that which can be done just as well now… Ambition, energy, industry, perseverance are indispensable requisites for success in business.
Politeness and civility are the best capital ever invested in business. Large stores, gilt signs, flaming advertisements, will all prove unavailing if you or your employees treat your patrons abruptly.
The truth is, the more kind and liberal a man is, the more generous will be the patronage bestowed upon him.
Men who drive sharp bargains with their customers, acting as if they never expected to see them again, will not be mistaken. They will never see them again as customers. People don’t like to pay and get kicked also.
If you whip him, he will never visit the museum again, and he will induce friends to go with him to other places of amusement instead of this, and thus, you see, I should be a serious loser.
If he owned the Museum, and you had paid him for the privilege of visiting it, and he had then insulted you, there might be some reason in your resenting it, but in this instance, he is the man who pays, while we receive, and you must, therefore, put up with his bad manners.
If you hesitate, some bolder hand will stretch out before you and get the prize.
A man who is known to be strictly honest, may be ever so poor, but he has the purses of all of the community at his disposal, for all know that if he promises to return what he borrows, he will never disappoint them.
As ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them, and they will do better by you than if you always treated them as if you wanted to get the most you could of them for the least return.
We are all, no doubt, born for a wise purpose.
Unless a man enters upon the vocation intended for him by nature and best suited to his peculiar genius, he cannot succeed. (44)
I hope that I inspired you to take a closer look at P. T. Barnum, his life, his success, and his methods. Fortunately, a very good book has been written for us modern marketers about Barnum’s success secrets by Internet wizard Joe Vitale. It’s called “There’s a Customer Born Every Minute,” and it explains Barnum’s ten key success secrets. (45) (46)
In the endnotes, I added links to free public domain online access or downloads of works by or about P. T. Barnum. (47) (48) (49) (50) (51)
(1) American Women’s History: A Research Guide, Advertising, http://frank.mtsu.edu/~kmiddlet/history/women/wh-advert.html
(2) Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850–1920, http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/eaa/
“The Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850–1920 (EAA) presents over 9,000 images, with database information, relating to the early history of advertising in the United States. The materials, drawn from the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University, provide a significant and informative perspective on the early evolution of this most ubiquitous feature of modern American business and culture.”
(4) O’Barr, William, A Brief History of Advertising in America, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/asr/v006/6.3unit02.html
(5) Advertising History Timeline, http://adage.com/century/timeline/index.html
(6) American Advertising History, https://web.archive.org/web/20080502195617/http://www.icsd.k12.ny.us/highschool/library/advertising.html
The comic book ad link includes a famous Charles Atlas ad.
(7) Bernstein, Lawrence, The Penalty of Leadership (Space Ad by Theodore F. MacManus), http://www.infomarketingblog.com/the-penalty-of-leadership-space-ad-by-theodore-f-macmanus/
(8) Senoff, Michael, http://www.hardtofindads.com/home
(9) History of Direct Mail, http://www.direct-mail.org/history.htm
“Based on a chapter from ‘Effective Direct Advertising,’ © 1921.”
(10) Advertising, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising, June 30, 2010.
(11) Ewen, Stuart. Captains of consciousness: advertising and the social roots of the consumer, Basic Books, New York, 2001.
(12) Fox, Stephen. The Mirror Makers: a History of American Advertising and Its Creators, University of Illinois Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1984, 1997.
(13) Sanders, Marlon. Littleknown Old School Marketing Secrets — Revealed,
(14) Galletti, Carl, When Works Pass into Public Domain, http://adsecrets.blogspot.com/
(15) Gasaway, Lolly, When U.S. Works Pass into the Public Domain,
(16) Lok, Dan, Can It Get Any Better?, https://web.archive.org/web/20100413131024/http://www.longlostsalesletters.com/special.html
(17) McCarthy, Ken, The zero-hype, fad-free, Internet marketing
“SYSTEM” that has trained more successful Internet marketers than all of the “gurus” combined — since 1994, https://web.archive.org/web/20090407093255/http://www.thesystemseminar.com:80/index.html
(18) Lok, Dan, Can It Get Any Better?, https://web.archive.org/web/20100413131024/http://www.longlostsalesletters.com/special.html
(19) P. T. Barnum, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._T._Barnum
(20) Phineas Taylor Barnum portrait.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phineas_Taylor_Barnum_portrait.jpg
(21) P. T. Barnum, para 5, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._T._Barnum
(22) Brown, R. J., P. T. Barnum Never Did Say “There’s a Sucker Born Every Minute,” para 1, https://web.archive.org/web/20100127110642/http://www.historybuff.com/library/refbarnum.html
Maher, Kathleen, The Man, the Myth, the Legend, https://web.archive.org/web/20100210224408/https://barnum-museum.org/manmythlegend.htm
The Barnum Museum celebrates P. T. Barnum’s 200th birthday.
(23) Brown, R. J., P. T. Barnum Never Did Say “There’s a Sucker Born Every Minute,” https://web.archive.org/web/20100127110642/http://www.historybuff.com/library/refbarnum.html
(24) Brown, R. J., P. T. Barnum Never Did Say “There’s a Sucker Born Every Minute,” para 9–10https://web.archive.org/web/20100127110642/http://www.historybuff.com/library/refbarnum.html
(25) PT Barnum Greatest Show on Earth.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PT_Barnum_Greatest_Show_on_Earth.jpg
(26) Settle, Ben, Scott Haines Copywriting Interview, para 12–20, http://bensettle.com/blog/scott-haines-copywriting-interview/
(27) Settle, Ben, Scott Haines Copywriting Interview, para 21, http://bensettle.com/blog/scott-haines-copywriting-interview/
(28) Settle, Ben, Scott Haines Copywriting Interview, para 23, http://bensettle.com/blog/scott-haines-copywriting-interview/
(29) Hagens, Nate, Status and Curiosity — On the Origins of Oil Addiction, para 14, http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4240
(30) (31) (32) Hagens, Nate, Status and Curiosity — On the Origins of Oil Addiction, para 15, http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4240
(33) Jumbo, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jumbo
(34) JumboElephant.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JumboElephant.jpeg
(35) Hagens, Nate, Status and Curiosity — On the Origins of Oil Addiction, para 16, http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4240
(36) Carmichael, Even, Master of the Show: P.T. Barnum is Born, https://web.archive.org/web/20100605141430/http://www.evancarmichael.com/Famous-Entrepreneurs/1024/Master-of-the-Show-PT-Barnum-is-Born.html
(37) ‘Maury’ and ‘The Jerry Springer Show’ Deliver Season-High Ratings in Households, Key Demos, and Total Viewers, para 4, http://www.thefutoncritic.com/news.aspx?id=20050111nuts01
(38) Gorman, Bill, Maury, Jerry Springer, & Steve Wilkos Show Double Digit Increases — Largest Growth Of Any Talkers From May 2010 vs. 2009, para 1,
(39) The Jerry Springer Show, para 17–18, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Jerry_Springer_Show
(40) The Jerry Springer Show, para 2, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Jerry_Springer_Show,
(41) Carmichael, Evan, Lesson #4: Give People More Than Their Money’s Worth, para 2–3, https://web.archive.org/web/20100212192927/http://www.evancarmichael.com/Famous-Entrepreneurs/1024/Lesson-4-Give-People-More-Than-Their-Moneys-Worth.html
(42) Markowitz, Sam, The Last Protégé Of Gary Halbert Reveals Five Highly-Effective, Proven Marketing Secrets That Will Make You A Fortune If You Use Them …Or… Soon Make You Broke If You Don’t!, para 154, https://web.archive.org/web/20100505063446/http://www.thegaryhalbertletter.com/newsletters/2008/the_last_protege/the_last_protege.htm
The example headline is in the section called “Marketing Secret #4… Grab Your Prospects’ Attention With This Jedi Mind Trick!”
(43) Carmichael, Evan, para 1, https://web.archive.org/web/20100619141655/http://www.evancarmichael.com/EvanAbout.html
(44) Carmichael, Evan, P.T. Barnum Quotes, para 3–21, https://web.archive.org/web/20100605135114/http://www.evancarmichael.com/Famous-Entrepreneurs/1024/PT-Barnum-Quotes.html
(45) Vitale, Joe. There’s a Customer Born Every Minute: P. T. Barnum’s Amazing 10 “Rings of Power” for Creating Fame, Fortune, and a Business Empire Today — Guaranteed!, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2006.
(46) Books Authored or Co-Authored by Joe Vitale http://www.mrfire.com/shop
(47) Phineas Taylor Barnum, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Phineas_Taylor_Barnum
(48) The Life of Phineas T. Barnum by Joel Benton, http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1576
(49) Here are three free online sources for the public domain book, “The Art of Money Getting,” authored by P. T. Barnum.
Art of Money Getting by P. T. Barnum v1.0, http://www.filebuzz.com/fileinfo/19992/Art_of_Money_Getting_by_P_T__Barnum.html
The Art of Money Getting or “Golden Rules for Making Money” by P. T. Barnum (Phineas Taylor), 1810–1891, http://www.virtuescience.com/art-of-money-getting.html
Art of Money Getting by P. T. Barnum, http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/8581
(50) The Humbugs of the World by P. T. Barnum, http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/26640
(51) Gertsacov, Adam, P. T. Barnum, http://www.ptbarnum.org/index2.html
“Adam Gertsacov (1964-), noted actor, sideshow performer, and clown brings Barnum to life in a dramatic interactive first-person interpretation of the historic character. The interpretation is the product of careful study and research, as well as a healthy dose of showmanship. Audience members can meet Barnum in the flesh and hear him opine on a number of issues (mostly in his original words). After the performance, a question and answer session is available.”